*) Mintzberg, H. Ahlstrand, B. and Lampel, J. Strategy Safari : A Guided Tour Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, The Free Press, New York, 1998.
• Strategy as plan – a directed course of action to achieve an intended set of goals;
• Strategy as pattern – a consistent pattern of past behavior, with a strategy realized over time rather than planned or intended. Where the realized pattern was different from the intent, Mintzberg refers to the strategy as emergent;
• Strategy as position – locating brands, products, or companies within the market, based on the conceptual framework of consumers or other stakeholders; a strategy determined primarily by factors outside the firm;
In scientific research and development one can certainly recognize these three variations, but we will limit ourselves to the concept of strategy as a plan for building up a new research group, or perhaps a new institute.